Change The Objective

Differentiation isn’t always about creating lots of different activities or worksheets. It can be, and in an ideal world in my classroom at least, I love it when circumstances allow for that. But the reality is that sometimes that can’t happen, and sometimes it doesn’t need to happen. In fact sometimes, it’s best if everyone does the same piece of work.

Most of my students find extended writing challenging, so much so that many come to me not being able or willing to even try them. So when I plan extended writing activities, I like it to be an all singing, all dancing kind of affair. I like to act things out, show films, read books, get out the Lego, make potions, or even throw Baby Corn in the air. And, yes as those of you who have been reading for a while will know – sometimes I even like to break the rules by standing on a chair on a table!

These kind of lessons, the ones with the real ‘wow’ factor, work best if the whole class is engaged in the same kind of activity. Apart from anything else, the craziness I embark upon to get everyone interested and engaged with what we’re going to write about, would make it far too distracting for anyone to concentrate on doing anything else!

So in these lessons, I have to think about differentiation in a different way. I have to think about outcomes rather than input. OK, so I want all of my students to produce an extended piece of writing, but what do I really want individuals to focus on? What do I want them to learn?

For me these learning outcomes are usually something different for everyone, but in a larger class it may be that groups of students have the same objective. For one of my students it might be, ‘I really want you to focus on using full stops and capital letters’, for another it may be ‘I want you to challenge yourself and see how many different connectives you can include’ and for another it may be content based ‘I want you to really think how you could create a surprise for your reader within the story.’

So whilst my class are all essentially writing the same piece, which allows me to make sure my input has been as engaging as possible, their individual focus is different. What they are working on and learning is personalised. The key to the success of it; is to find a way that works for you, of letting your students know what you want them to focus on; what you want them to learn. I use post-it notes, but you could stickers or even large pieces of paper in the middle of tables in larger classes.

This is really easy differentiation, but it’s differentiation that will make a difference. It will make a difference to how well your students learn but even more importantly it will make a difference to how they feel about themselves as learners. These small steps and an individual focus will make them realise that they can achieve. Go on, give it a go, personalise your objectives! What have you got to lose?

Let’s Get Writing

If there is one thing I am really passionate about, it’s enabling students to become independent writers. Giving them not only the skills but in the belief in themselves that they can do it.

It’s very easy with the most challenging students, to avoid challenges and the behaviours that come along with those challenges. No teacher and no parent wants to see students upset. However, we also have to ask ourselves what our purpose as teachers is? And if ultimately one of our purposes is to prepare students for real life after school, we have to ensure not only that those students who are cognitively able to read and write do so, but also that the are able to face challenges head on and deal with those challenges, believing that they can.

Over the past few years, in two different locations, I’ve encountered students who have come to me as non-writers. Some at 11 haven’t yet been able to form letters, some haven’t had the phonetic knowledge to create sounds and others have the skills but have simply refused to write in their previous placements. All of these students have learnt to write and learnt to write confidently. They have learnt to believe in themselves.

I don’t have a magic wand, but I do have a lot of perseverance. I believe strongly in the fact that it’s worth going through the tough times to come out the other side. I believe that all my students can do it. And most of all, I believe that a small amount of independent work is worth a page full of work that has been done by someone else.

Scribing can be really harmful. All too often it’s used as a way of covering material, a way of differentiating for students who have no way of keeping up. And I understand that, I understand the why. Content, especially in today’s exam driven world is important. But, we need also to look at the bigger picture. We need to ensure that students have the basics. We need to be flexible enough to stand up, be counted, and change the lesson objective for that child. We need to allow them time to write, to develop their skills. Whether that be through handwriting, or through the use of technology – we need to give our students independence. We need to give them belief in themselves.

So next time there is a student in your room who can’t keep up, stop a minute and think. What does this student really need? Do they really need all the facts of the industrial revolution recorded in their book in year seven? Do they really need to write a full page story? Or can you use this time to build their skills, build their independence and belief in themselves?

It’s only by doing this that we will see true progress. If we scribe for a student throughout year seven, we will still be doing so in year eleven. If we promote independence in year seven, who knows where that student will go…

Ode To The Envelope

If there is one thing I love as much as Post-it notes, then it has to be envelopes. They are I feel, a seriously underrated teaching device! So, here are my top five reasons why we as teachers should worship (or at the very least use on a regular basis) the humble envelope:

1) Envelopes are a ready made way to make any lesson seem far more exciting than it really is! Put them on desks and you can be guaranteed interest, students will be literally desperate to open them and therefore by default already have a vested interest in whatever challenge is lurking inside. Packaging matters to students just like it does to us. Imagine going into your classroom to find a brightly coloured envelope on your desk. What would you want to do?

2) They are a perfect way of disguising your differentiation. Using colour coded envelopes means that you can ‘randomly’ assign tasks whilst in reality knowing exactly which students you are giving them to. Students feel like there is a variety of work being given out and therefore do not feel signalled out or different because of the task they have been given.

3) Chopping the top off them means that they can be made into fantastic pockets to stick into students’ books and filled with exciting notes, revision tips, targets etc. All of which are infinitely more exciting (and therefore more likely to be read) than a simple piece of paper stuck into a book.

4) They are a great way to make sure your carefully made resources stay firmly together. I love them for enticing students who profess not to like poetry to engage with it. Chop up lines of the poem (laminate), and put inside your envelope. Hand them out their envelopes and challenge them to rearrange in a way that makes sense.

5) Last but not least; they are an essential communication tool! There are some things in my room that we don’t reveal until the last minute. A cancelled swimming trip for instance causes a domino effect of meltdowns. So the parents are informed of the date in a sealed envelope, students know there is a trip planned for some point in the week, if there’s a problem with the pool – all can be resolved without any upset. Some secrets are best kept!

So there you have it, the perfect excuse to embark on a bit of stationery shopping over the holidays. I mean, come on, what more excuse do you need? They are practically essential…

Match Your Books

When I first started teaching, I worked in an independent boarding school. We had the most beautiful school library I have ever seen. It was the perfect breeding ground to create a love of reading, and I loved every minute I spent in there. Yet despite the idyllic setting and their typically amazing behaviour my year eight students suddenly turned into monsters during reading lessons.

Something, I decided, had to be done. Despite being dyslexic, I love reading. I always have. In fact if I can’t think of many things that I prefer to do. I was determined that somehow, even if it killed me this was a love that I would impart to my students. The problem was books are personal, just because I liked a book didn’t mean a student would.

So, I changed my tack. I no longer read books I wanted to read. I read everything. Everything that is that could possibly interest teenagers. I read literally 100s of books during my first few months there, and I started matching books to students. In fact, it became somewhat of a personal challenge. The more determined the student was that they didn’t want to read; the more determined I was to find a book that they would like. And, much to my delight it worked. Students started reading, and simultaneously they started trusting me. By the end of year eight they had all read a selection of teenage fiction, by the end of year nine every one of them read a full pre 1914 novel. What’s more, they enjoyed it.

Sometimes, we need to think beyond the box. We need to be able to do something different. It’s rare I teach the same book twice, for me, it just doesn’t work. Instead I like to look at my classes and find a book that I think they will enjoy, a book that will speak to them. Whatever the curriculum goal is, my personal one is that I want my students to learn to love books. I want to create a love of reading that will follow them through life.

That’s something that’s never been more important than with my current group. I like to read books that interest my students. I’m well aware that the reading level is well above that of some in the class – but I run other interventions simultaneously to tackle that. When I read to my class, above all I want to transport them to another place, provide them with escapism and joy. I want to introduce them to new language, new ideas, new worlds.

Differentiation is important, but differentiation does not mean dumbing down. Done properly differentiation should provide challenge and excitement. You can enable your students to understand by acting parts out, by working through vocabulary, by scaffolding questioning. But you have to choose a book that will interest them, without an interesting text students will not want to understand. It’s a careful balance, but an important one. After all, how hard would you try to understand something you had no interest in?

Break The Rules (Occasionally)

In my world consistency is important. If I make a rule, I enforce it. Structure works, it makes it obvious that I’m being fair, my students feel safe and endless arguments are avoided. After all if I forget a rule my students will remind me. They are excellent rule keepers (even if they don’t always apply them to themselves) and woe and betide anyone that decides to break them.

But that in itself makes life complicated. After all, as every teenager knows there are some rules that are meant to be broken. One day my students will go into mainstream lessons where other students WILL most certainly be surreptitiously breaking rules discretely – they will pass a note to their friends, they will chew a piece of gum, they will rock on their chair. Somehow it’s essential that my students learn to tolerate this. And that is not an easy mission.

It’s an on-going work in progress; we work on whispering the broken rule to members of support staff, or writing it on a post-it note to give it to the teacher at the end. The thought of not reporting it, is for many, too hideous a thought to contemplate, so we strive to achieve anything but reporting it out loud to the teacher in front of the class and thus receiving death stares from every other student in the room!

However, this comes with advantages. If we’re careful we can flip it and use it. My students find listening hard. There are a million and one tiny details competing for their attention. A piece of paper flapping in the corner, another student fidgeting under the desk, the sound of the wind in the trees – if I want their attention I have to work for it. And there is one thing I know that is sure to get it – yes you’ve got it, a little bit of rule breaking!

So when I taught George’s Marvellous Medicine, and I needed them to focus on listening to just how tall Grandma was becoming – I stood on a chair on a table, whilst staging the whole event by putting a look-out at the classroom door, just in case the headmaster happened to walk past. And whilst teaching Harry Potter and learning to fly – I once again stood on said table, broomstick in hand before jumping (sorry flying) off and racing around the classroom at top speed. I ended by swearing my students to silence and telling them it was a secret. Great excitement ensued. We had collaboratively broken the rules!

Off course they are the world’s worst kept secrets in history; along with the time I pretended to be a goat and head-butted them (I now have no recollection of why), these are the tales with which they regale our visitors whilst extracting the promise from them not to tell the headmaster. They are probably the lessons they remembered the most, their attention was gained, differentiation achieved. Once again, without a worksheet in sight!

So go on, what are you waiting for, give your students a lesson to remember; break a few rules! But shhhhh don’t tell the headmaster…..

Oh No! Voldemort Has Been In The Classroom!

Having a Harry Potter themed classroom, it seemed only appropriate that when we entered the room this morning to find a bunch of shrunken superheroes (and angry wolves – think Minecraft), that it was Voldemort who got the blame.

I love those days when my English lessons are first thing in the morning; I can go round and plant clues to inspire my students. Today, it was once again the turn of my Lego superheroes. Students came in the room to find them planted around the room complete with post-its of what they were saying. The story – Voldemort had slipped into our room overnight, where the superheroes had been sleeping and cast a shrinking spell, now they were only the size of Lego men, and they had to find a way of escaping the room.

Each student chose a character (or wolf – I have a student who loves to do anything Minecraft related), and came up with a post-it of what they thought the character would say. Theirs admittedly were far better than mine; apparently my superhero knowledge is only 3%!! Then when all of our quotes had been assigned around the room with our heroes, students devised a brief plan for escape and regrowth. My students’ imaginations never cease to amaze me – Flash burned through the door, Catwoman walked up the wall and took the tiles off the roof, the wolves became angry, whilst Robin very sensibly got all of the members of the Justice League together before plotting his next move.

There was great excitement all round! It had taken us around an hour, but we were ready to begin planning our stories, this time with our trusty Cue Cards as our prompt. Students lined them up along their desk and completed a post it note for each card. The plan was accomplished and the story writing began!

One student wrote an article for the ‘Gotham Times’, others wrote in more traditional story formats. What’s more, because of all the preparation we’d done together, half of the group were able to produce their finished story independently.

Admittedly, a good proportion of the early part of the lesson was spent with them laughing at my inferior knowledge. But hey, they all knew they could do better so it was all in the name of engagement. Maybe once in a while it pays to let them teach us a few things…

Superhero Connectives

Today I wanted to focus not on the quantity of writing my students produced, but on the quality. I’m only too aware that for some of my students, getting the work done quickly is their primary objective. There are times when that is fantastic, but I like to have a balance.

So there are days I take the pressure of quantity away and we work on building our sentences one word at a time. We explore new words, look in thesaurus’ and generally learn to enjoy language. Today was one of those days. I wanted to work on using and understanding more complex connectives, so that students would become more familiar with them and more likely to use them in their written work.

I’d had a delivery of some very exciting Lego-like (but much cheaper) Superheroes, each one individually wrapped. So it seemed like the perfect time to be exacting about my standards! Students walked into the room to find 10 un-built superheroes on their tables along with post-it notes (yes they’re creeping into my lessons again) and individually written ‘wow’ connectives. The excitement in the room was palpable. My students couldn’t believe their luck! The deal: choose a character from the pile, write one amazing sentence using one of our connectives, then build the character. Next, choose another character, write an amazing sentence about them and a further one combining both of your characters, then build your character, and so on. Never have I seen them look as happy about a literacy lesson!

The sentences were incredible, in fact some of the best they’ve ever written. But that wasn’t the real magic. The magic was the confidence with which they wrote, the willingness with which they engaged with new language, and the conversations that surrounded their writing. It was a lesson I won’t forget in a hurry.

Tangible things to look at can really help with creativity. They are a ready made base to hang ideas from. They take the stress away and add the excitement factor. So what are you waiting for? Get raiding your cupboards – find your wow factor! Your students can write incredible sentences, you just have to start one word at a time.

As for me, whilst Superhero excitement is here, I’m already thinking about how to incorporate them into my next few lessons…

The Personification of Baby Corn

Inspired by my trip to the Autism Show in Manchester on Saturday, I began today in a state of great excitement. Those of you who know me are probably thinking that actually that’s how I begin most days – and yes admittedly that’s true – but even by my standards I was excited!

You see after hearing a talk on Autism and memory, I had decided that from now on every lesson I teach needs to be not only a lesson but an experience. So I began today at 8.15 by talking to a packet of Baby Corn on my desk. My students (being my students and used to the fact that I am slightly crazy), were intrigued rather than perturbed – and I left the thought with them that all would be revealed in this afternoon’s English lesson.

Partly, I suspect, because they wanted to see what insanity was planned with the Baby Corn; at 12.45 each of them was sat at their desks looking at me eagerly. With a bit of help from my trusty colleagues the insanity began. I chatted to the Corn, then left it on the side to listen to me read Julia Donaldson’s ‘Stick Man’. A book which though very simple illustrated my point perfectly. We talked about Stick Man’s feelings and came up with appropriate things he could say when he felt cross.

Then I handed out the Baby Corn, one per student – along of course with some post-it-notes. Baby Corn then began it’s adventure, it climbed rocks, flew on an aeroplane and even flew (sorry, fell in style) across my classroom, superhero style. All the while we gave our inanimate object person-like thoughts, characteristics and feelings. My students – as always – were amazing. Each wrote fantastic sentences personifying the Baby Corn.

It was an abstract concept, it involved imagination, it involved understanding the thoughts and feelings of others. Technically, it should have been a tricky lesson, but it wasn’t. In fact I can’t wait to start on the feelings of a smelly sock tomorrow morning….

No Way I’ve Already Done It!

Tomorrow is Monday morning; lesson one I teach my KS4 students – all of whom before 9.30 if I’m totally honest, would far rather be at home in bed than in my lesson. They will be grumpy, and anything and everything that is wrong with their world will be my fault. It’s ok – I won’t take it personally – as soon as the clock hits 9.30 they will become the lovely human beings I know them to be, and I will be forgiven for inflicting endless misery upon them.

I am however determined, as I am every Monday that lesson one will be a success, despite the fact that this Monday I (the evil teacher) will be inflicting the horror of all horror on them. We will be redrafting a piece of work.

Now I should add here that redrafting work, has – in the eyes of my students – to be the most pointless task ever invented. It is in their opinion simply a form of torture which teachers have invented in order to make them miserable. I mean what is the point of redoing something that you have already done, tried your best doing and are quite satisfied with?

Of course I could just say, never mind then let’s leave it at that. However, both they and I know that that isn’t going to happen. I’m far too stubborn for that. My KS4 students are wonderful, intelligent and creative, and more than capable of improving their work. However, that said – nor am I going to embark on a battle of wills first thing on a Monday morning.

Instead I’m going to go round the houses, they aren’t going to ‘redraft’ work, or at least not knowingly. Instead, they are going to complete four challenges – each of which asks them to look at a different element of their work. Those challenges will be handwritten and presented in an envelope which congratulates them on a fantastic piece of work. I need them to understand that 1) They have done a great job with their work, 2) I know that they’ve done a great job, 3) Even when we’ve done a great job, we can still challenge ourselves a little bit more.

One day, in the not too distant future – they will be ready for me to say to them, ‘OK guys let’s redraft this’, but first they need to understand that redrafting something doesn’t mean you got it wrong in the first place and second they need to have the building blocks in place to understand what redrafting work really means.

Ok and I forgot, one tiny other element – a Cadbury’s chocolate éclair – once they’ve completed their challenges they will enjoy their éclair whilst I thoroughly enjoy reading their excellent work!

If you would like to try this with your students here are some printable and editable challenges for you to get started with. Just don’t mention the dreaded ‘redrafting’ word!

What Would You Do If You Were A Monkey In Space?

A common misconception is that students with Autism don’t have imagination. Whoever first made that statement, clearly didn’t have students like mine! My students have richer imaginations than anyone I know; they can invent new words, write amazing stories and come up with a million and one questions that no one else would ever even contemplate wondering about!

I love the conversations I have in my classroom, I learn so much. I have, in the last week alone debated the pros and cons of Disney’s Beast versus The Beast from X-Men, conversed with Dr Brown Bear as I cured my blutack made spotty students (and support staff), discussed the necessary elements to turn an ordinary bedroom into an Australian Jungle and been initiated into the world of online role play. No day is ever the same and that is why my job is the best job in the world.

Alongside the incredible imaginations of my students, comes a desire to discuss their special interests and link those interests to whatever we are learning. At this they are incredibly skilled, and I’m often both simultaneously impressed and perturbed by their ability to railroad my lessons with a fantastic (if only tenuously linked to my lesson plan) question!

I’ve learnt, however, over time that I can utilise these questions to my advantage, rather than feel frustrated by them…. instead I tell my students that they came up with such an incredible question, that I need time to think of an answer that is just as incredible. And that is exactly what I do! The students begin their work, I think of my answers and then, when I can see a student is starting to find things a bit tricky I have the perfect pick me up in a well thought out (if often somewhat bizarre) answer to the very imaginative question I have previously been asked.

So how could this work in mainstream? Why not give those students who can be somewhat tangential in your lessons a pack of post it notes (I already warned you, any excuse and my post it notes appear), ask them to write down any questions that come into their head that aren’t directly related to the lesson. Then when students are settled and working go round the class and check out the post-its. Either discuss individually, or pick your favourite each lesson and give a whole class answer (just make sure students know in advance which method you’re using so they’re not disappointed if you don’t choose them).

Use imagination to your advantage, you’ll be surprised at what you discover!